Wound healing - The 3 phases
Normally a wound heals under the crust with various wound healing phases - All animals reacts individually as their immune system, age, nutrition, weather conditions, environment and history also have an influence. Common to all is that these 3 phases are quite common conditions when the tissue heals up. In case of doubt the vet should be contacted.
• Inflammation phase = The yellow phase
The inflammatory phase begins immediately after a tissue injury has occurred. This may be relevant for wounds, mud fever, inflammation, eczema, etc. In the inflammation phase, wounds are often exuding. There may be inflammation in the wound. Fibrinogen, which is a protein in the blood, forms a network around the remnants of tissue, dirt, blood cells and other components of the wound. This is called scabs. In this wound phase, the wound is cleansed naturally from the inside, as the immune system cells kill bacteria and "kill" dead cells. In the inflammation phase, there will typically be pain, redness, swelling and warmth in the area.
• New formation phase = The red phase
In this phase, the repairs and healing of the wound begin seriously. It is important to clean for yellow coatings and possibly inflamed tissue. When the regeneration phase begins, there is a strong growth of blood vessels in the wound, which causes the nutrient and oxygen supply in this increases significantly. Cells from other parts of the body are now flowing to the area, and begin to build a kind of connective tissue called granulation tissue. The tissue is red, fragile and bleeds easily. The reason for the mild bleeding is due to the many newly formed blood vessels. If wound healing is allowed to proceed without disturbances, the granulation tissue will spread beyond the wound bed. When the wound is completely filled out of this tissue, an epithelialization begins, which means that new skin grows over the granulation tissue.
• Maturation phase = The pink phase
In this phase, the newly formed skin is strengthened. During the regeneration phase, connective tissue is more or less randomly leaned into the granulation tissue. In the maturation phase, this tissue becomes more structured so that the tissue gains greater strength. However the process is very slow. The newly formed tissue, also called scar tissue, never completely achieves the strength and elasticity of the original tissue.